Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend International Conference on Aquaculture & Fisheries Brisbane, Australia.

Day 3 :

  • Track 13: Aquaculture Law and Policy
Location: Quay 2
Speaker
Biography:

David Vander Zwaag is Professor of Law and Canada Research Chair in Ocean Law and Governance at the Marine & Environmental Law Institute, Dalhousie University. He is a member of the IUCN’s World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL) and co-chairs the WCEL Specialist Group on Oceans, Coasts and Coral Reefs. He has published over 150 papers in the marine and environmental law field. His co-edited book publications include, among others, Polar Oceans Governance in an Era of Environmental Change and Aquaculture Law and Policy: Towards Principled Access and Operations.

Abstract:

This presentation will highlight three main international law and policy “current systems” that set courses for achieving sustainable aquaculture operations around the globe. First, key provisions of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea will be described. The Convention grants coastal States jurisdictional rights over aquaculture developments within national zones of jurisdiction, including 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zones, but also imposes environmental responsibilities, such as the fundamental duty to protect and preserve the marine environment. Second, the role of international environmental law agreements in setting directions for the management of aquaculture will be reviewed with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) being central. For example, the CBD’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 includes a target (target 7) for managing aquaculture areas sustainably by 2020 in order to ensure the conservation of biodiversity. A CBD technical report on solutions for sustainable aquaculture, published in 2004, suggests best practices including avoiding the use of non-native species and encouraging the culture of different species together (polyculture). A third source of international guidance for aquaculture is documents emanating from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The implications of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries for aquaculture will be emphasized along with key FAO technical guidelines applicable to aquaculture calling for precautionary and ecosystem approaches.

Marcus Haward

University of Tasmania
Australia

Title: Australian aquaculture governance
Speaker
Biography:

Marcus Haward is a political scientist specialising in oceans and Antarctic governance and marine resources management at the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS), University of Tasmania. He has over 150 research publications, and his books include Oceans Governance in the Twenty-first Century: Managing the Blue Planet (with Joanna Vince) Edward Elgar 2008; and Global Commodity Governance: State Responses to Sustainable Forest and Fisheries Certification (with Fred Gale) Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. He is editor of the Australian Journal of Maritime and Oceans Affairs published by Taylor & Francis.

Abstract:

Marine aquaculture is a major element of Australian fisheries production. The sector has undergone major development and change over the past two decades. Aquaculture operations in Australia include salmonids and other important market species of tuna, oysters, and prawns. A number of other species are also farmed. In 2011-12 the aquaculture of salmonid species (Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Brown trout (Salmo trutta) was Australia’s largest catch by production (43, 989 tonnes) and by value ($513 million). Given Australia’s federal division of powers a vast majority of aquaculture operations located with state waters and governed by state and local government legislation and by-laws. The Australian (national) government is also involved through sustainability assessments, quarantine and bio-security, food quality and safety, and environmental management. Community engagement is centred on an increasing focus on social acceptability/social license relating to aquaculture operations. A further element is the development of industry based codes of practice and moves to seek external third party accreditation of their operations. This paper examines aquaculture governance in Australia, highlighting the importance of the interaction between government, industry and community.

Karen N Scott

University of Canterbury
New Zealand

Title: New Zealand’s aquaculture law and policy framework
Speaker
Biography:

Karen Scott is a Professor in Law at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. She researches and teaches in the areas of the law of the sea, international environmental law and Antarctic law and policy. She has over 50 research articles and book chapters in these areas and is the Co-Editor of Rothwell, Oude Elferink, Scott and Stephens; The Oxford Handbook on the Law of the Sea (OUP 2015). She is currently undertaking a Research Project focusing on Oceans Governance in New Zealand funded by the New Zealand Law Foundation. She is currently the Vice-President of the Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law (ANZSIL)

Abstract:

Aquaculture is the fastest growing agricultural sector in New Zealand and the industry target supported by the New Zealand government is to more than double its size to NZ $1 billion by 2025. In contrast to most other global regions the New Zealand aquaculture industry is relatively clean and green with manageable environmental impacts although this largely results from its relatively small size. The industry has however come into conflict with local communities and authorities with respect to the utilization of coastal space and the impact of activities on areas deemed to be of outstanding natural beauty. Aquaculture has been subject to regular and radical reform over the last decade in order to try to respond to the aims to expand the industry and to manage spatial and environmental conflicts. This paper will examine the current regulatory environment for aquaculture in light of those reforms and the various policy aims including the dispute over ownership of the New Zealand foreshore and seabed. The paper will explore these issues through a case study on salmon farming in the Marlborough Sounds which resulted in two important Supreme Court decisions in 2014 and led to a significant change in approach to selected principles set out in the 2010 New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement. The paper will conclude suggestions and observations with respect to the future management of aquaculture in New Zealand.

Speaker
Biography:

Irene Dahl is an Associate Professor with PhD (2009) from the Faculty of Law, University of Tromsø. She graduated in 1996 and has worked at the Faculty since then, now at the K.G. Jebsen Centre for the Law of the Sea. She has done research on Norwegian fisheries law and international fisheries law. Her PhD thesis was about Norwegian fisheries jurisdiction over foreign fishing vessels. Articles from 2014 that may be mentioned are “Maritime delimitation in the Arctic: Implications on Fisheries Jurisdiction and Cooperation in the Barents Sea”, under publication in International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law and “Fisheries Cooperation between Norway and Russia in the Barents Sea”, under publication in a Marsafnet editorial book project. Together with David Vanderzwaag and Nigel Bankes, she constitutes the organizing committee for the editorial book project “Aquaculture Law and Policy: Global, Regional and National Perspectives”, after which agreement with Edward Elgar Publishing Limited will be published in 2015.

Abstract:

Marine aquaculture is a major element of fisheries production in Northern Atlantic countries; in Norwaythe realized amount of farmed fish in 2013 had a value of 40 billion NOK. It is an expressed aim that the sector shall increase. The Norwegian Government initiated a consultation procedure in June 2014 with time limit for comments 6 January 2015. The main content in the legal amendment is permission for established actors to increase maximum allowable biomass within licences for salmon, trout and rainbow trout with 5%. Several of the bodies entitled to comment are not implicit positive to such an increase. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority advises against a permanent increase of the production capacity before the industry has better control with the situation of salmon louse. On the contrary, 15 December 2015 the authority announces that it withdraws the license for a portion of the production of several facilities, on the reasons of significant amount of louse. The salmon louse is a native parasite on wild salmon, and it falls of after short time in freshwater. However, if the amount of louse on one unit increases, the skin will suffer from sores that may result in other organisms of infection. The problem with escaping salmon from net cages contributes to a further escalating of the distribution of louse. In a recent research report, the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research concludes that the Alta fjord in Finnmark (a national salmon fjord) is under an increasing pressure from salmon louse. The increase was significant in areas with aquaculture. The report contains several similar cases. The paper examines to what extent existing international legal framework, especially within the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO), deals with the conflict between the aim of constant more food resources from aquaculture and the aim of conservation of the wild salmon.

Speaker
Biography:

Phillip Saunders Q C is an Associate Professor in Schulich School of Law at Dalhousie University. He was Dean of Law from 2005-2010 and Cross-appointed to the School for Resource and Environmental Studies. He has teaching and research interests in international marine and environmental law, maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries law. Formerly with the International Centre for Ocean Development as Senior Policy Advisor and Field Representative, South Pacific and has advised states on matters of international law and law of the sea in the South Pacific, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, Southern Africa, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America and Russia. He also acted as Counsel for Nova Scotia in the arbitration of the boundary between the offshore areas of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and as Commissioner for the Canada-Nova Scotia review of the Deep Panuke offshore project. Co-general Editor and Co-author of International Law, Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied in Canada (8th ed., 2014).

Abstract:

The governance of marine aquaculture in Canada takes place in the context of a federal system in which some elements of the constitutional jurisdiction relevant to aquaculture management rest with federal authorities, and others with the provincial (or possibly territorial) governments. In addition, constitutionally protected interests of aboriginal people – both potential title to marine space and mandatory consultation duties – are overlaid on the federal-provincial division. For many years the dominant approach to the regulation of the industry (with some exceptions) has been through effective devolution of authority over licensing and tenurial rights to provincial authorities, but this system was inherently vulnerable to challenge, and arguably provided incomplete protection of leasehold rights over aquaculture facilities, and created a patchwork system of regulation across the country. In 2010 a successful constitutional challenge in British Columbia forced the federal government to assume greater control over licensing of aquaculture, but to date this has not been applied in other provinces. This paper considers the implications of the confused and varied legal structures currently in place for the implementation of important governance principles, including precaution, integration and transparency. In addition, the pros and cons of a greater federal role, and the form it might take, are assessed in the light of the experience post-2010 in British Columbia.

  • Track 6: Aquaculture Related Diseases and Health Management
    Track 11: Ethical and Emerging Isuues in Aquaculture Development
    Track 12: Aquaculture Environment Interactions – Measuring, Modelling and Mitigation
Speaker

Chair

David Vander Zwaag

Chair Professor
Dalhousie University 
Canada

Speaker

Co-Chair

Katherine Hawes

Principal Solicitor
Aquarius Lawyers
Australia

Speaker
Biography:

Hany M R Abdel Latif has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from Alexandria University and postdoctoral studies from Michigan State University School of Veterinary Medicine. He is a Lecturer of Fish diseases, Department of Poultry and Fish diseases, Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Alexandria University. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of many journals.

Abstract:

Myxosporeans are common parasites of fish world-wide, which cause serious damage to economically important freshwater and marine fish species. During a recent investigation of parasites infecting fishes inhabiting different Canals at Behera governorate (Egypt), a total of one hundred and fifty sharp tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) were examined for the presence of myxozoan infections. The clinical signs, postmortem lesions and parasitological examinations were investigated. The infected fish were off food and had respiratory manifestations, sluggish swimming, and congestion of the gills as well as the presence of cyst like structures on the gill filaments, in the cartilage of the accessory breathing organ in some fish and in the ovaries of others. Parasitological examinations revealed great numbers of spores in the milky fluid inside the cysts, which identified the presence of two species of the genus Henneguya; plasmodia of H. branchialis and H. Fusiformis in the gills and accessory respiratory organ and one species of the genus Myxobolus; plasmodia of M. Gariepinus in the ovaries. The prevalence of Myxosporeans revealed that 25% of the examined fish were infected with Henneguya species and 16.67% were infected with Myxobolus species. It was also noted that the highest rate of infestation was found in spring season and in female specimens more than males. The results of this study demonstrate that the isolated Myxozoans were firstly isolated from wild sharp tooth catfish at Behera governorate, Egypt and they causes physical damage in gills, accessory respiratory organs and ovaries which make the infected fish unmarketable and ineligible for human consumption.

Masashi Maita

Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Japan

Title: Possibility of disease control by ambient dissolved oxygen level
Speaker
Biography:

Masashi Maita is involved in research in fish physiology and pharmacology. He began work at Tokyo University of Fisheries in 1991. There, he obtained a PhD in 1997 for the diagnostic study of clinical biochemistry in aquaculture fish. He was promoted to professor at Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology in 2008. He has been involved in studies on fish health management, risk management of aquaculture products due to harmful chemicals, and risk assessment of chemicals in fish.

Abstract:

Aquaculture has continuously contained a potential risk of hypoxia. Because of this background, many studies on respiration and circulatory function of fish at hypoxic environment have been reported to date. hypoxia influences the mortality of yellowtail infected with Enterococcus seriolicida. These findings suggest that exposing fish to hypoxia around the minimum requirement of environmental oxygen for long term may lead to a decrease in disease resistance in fish farming. Although studies on respiration and circulatory function at environmental oxygen below minimum requirement on fish have been reported, the immunological effect of environmental oxygen around the minimum requirement is unclear. Here, we examined the in vitro functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocytes at environmental oxygen around the minimum requirement. Reactive oxygen generation and antibacterial activity of leukocyte cultured in low dissolved oxygen medium were decreased. The partial pressure of venous oxygen (PvO2) of fish was decreased during hypoxia, but it was quickly recovered by increasing of dissolved oxygen in environmental water. Furthermore, the mortality due to the experimental challenge with Vibrio anguillarum was reduced by expanding the ambient dissolved oxygen level. These results suggest that hypoxia around the minimum requirement of environmental oxygen adversely affects the functions of fish leukocytes. Our results also suggest that artificially increasing the PvO2 can prevent fish from bacterial infectious diseases in aquaculture.

Speaker
Biography:

Alejandro J Yanez Carcamo has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from Universidad Austral de Chile University and doctoral studies from UMKC, U.S.A. He is the director of Austral Omics, a service organization that provide a transversal solution to the researchers. He has published more than 60 papers in reputed journals contributing to the knowledge of metabolism and applied microbiology.

Abstract:

Piscirickettsia salmonis is a facultative intracellularGram-negative bacterium isolated from salmonids inChile and constitutes one of the main problemsin farmed salmonids and marine fish around the world. The use ofartificial media represents an alternative to diminish the costof cell lines and reducescontamination problems.Recently, we have developed the first broth media and two new solidblood-free media, termed Astral SRS-Broth and Austral-TSFe agar and Austral-TS Hemagar,. Thesenovel media have shown to beproper for the bacterial isolationand routine culture in thelaboratory. Moreover, the data obtained with AUSTRAL-SRS broth, indicate that this mediumcan be successfully used in susceptibility tests ofP. salmonis isolates and the CLSI accept and indicatethis media in the new guideline edition 2014.The in vitro drug susceptibility tests contribute to anunderstanding of the pharmacokinetic data in fishas well as evaluate the drug resistance of this pathogen. Indeed, the genome sequencing of a highly pathogenic strain AUS005, let us to study the expression levels of several multidrug resistance pumps.Finally, the purification immunogenic protein obtained from P. salmonis provides a suitableplatform to simplify the preparation of a new class oflow-cost vaccinethat shown high rate of protection. These new biotechnological tools will help salmon producers to take treatmentdecisions and control the disease. FONDAP-INCAR 15110027.

Speaker
Biography:

Mohammad Nofal has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from Ecole Superieure des Affaires, Universite Pierre Mendes France. He is senior researcher in Fishery Business. Currently, He has conducting research on fishery logistics in Indonesia to accelerate Indonesia’s economic

Abstract:

This study aims to design an efficient Indonesia fish logistics system with based on Central Sulawesi Resources include Palu, Donggala, Toli-toli, Buol, Parigi Moutong, Poso, Tojo Una-Una, Banggai, Banggai Kepulauan, Banggai Laut, and Morowali. Integrating the data of logistics in the integer specified model, the result of our model depicts the minimum cost of fish logistics system. Based on our optimization result, all hubs in Central Sulawesi can supply fish commodity to the headquarter of industry in Java and Bali Island. In addition, the model for national fish logistics system in the region of Central Sulawesi Province as follow: 1) the fish comodity for Banggai laut hub should be supplied by different source locations, as an example, Banggai Kepulauan District dan Banggai Laut District, 2) the fish commodity for Luwuk hub should be supplied by certain source locations, such as, Banggai Kepulauan District, Banggai Laut District, Tojo Una-Una District and Banggai District, 3) the fish commodity for Palu (Pantoloan hub should be supplied by several source locations, for example, Donggala District, Parigi Moutong District, Poso District and Morowali District, and 4)the fish commodity for Tolitoli (Ogotua hub) should be supplied by two source locations, for instance, Buol District and Tolitoli District. As an initial study, the further study is important to connect Indonesia fish logistics system to international network especially Asia and Australia region.

Speaker
Biography:

Felix Olusegun Akinwumi is an Associate professor in Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

Abstract:

Appropriate post-harvest management strategies are critical in sustainable fish production in the tropics. One of such approaches is the control of insect pest infestation, which is a major factor for the economic loss of smoked fishery products in the tropics. The use of synthesized insecticides is hampered by high cost of purchase, health concerns and right application. In this study, the efficacies of the powders of four locally available and inexpensive plant materials, namely: Dennettia tripetala Baker, Eugenia aromatica Hook, Monodora myristica (Dunal) and Piper guineense (Schum and Thonn) at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g/100 g smoked Clarias gariepinus Burchell were evaluated for the control of the dermestid beetle, Dermestes maculatus. Each of the four plant powders caused significantly high (P<0.05) mortality in both the adults and larvae of the fish beetle at all concentrations when compared to the control and was effective in inhibiting progeny development in the treated fish. The four plant materials could play a major role in protecting one of the commercially important fish species in the tropics and thereby prevent smoked fish losses, improve income generation, enhance the health and socio-economic status of fish consumers and processors.

Speaker
Biography:

Javad Ghasemzadeh is currently an Assistant Professor in Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Sciences of Chabahar Maritime University, Iran

Abstract:

Subsequent to the outbreak of white spot syndrome (WSS) in the water shrimp farming complex along the Oman Sea in 2008, the Iranian aquaculture administration authorities replaced the cultured endemic species of Indian white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) with the more resistant species of White leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannami). To supply the required post larvae, cohorts of quarantine brood-stocks of Litopenaeus vannami were transferred from Golestan province to the shrimp hatcheries of Baluchistan. Although these hatcheries hired experienced foreign technicians coming from prominent countries in shrimp culture such as India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, the number and quality of nauplii produced by them differed significantly. Based on our past years experiences of such outcomes we decided to investigate this discrepancy by monitoring their work and scrutinising different techniques and factors implemented and controlled by these technicians and relate them to their outcomes. The results revealed that the temperature at which brood-stocks are kept in the course of propagation was critical in the number and quality of Nauplius obtained. Best results achieved within the temperature range of 26-28° C with an average of 27° C. Hatcheries in which temperature kept between 29-31° C (average 30° C) produced medium to weak number of nauplii and those with temperature varied between 31-34° C failed to produce any nauplii.