Day 1 :
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Keynote: Off-flavours in rainbow trout production systems with water recirculation: Occurrence, production and removal
Time : 11:40
Niels O G Jørgensen is an Associate Professor of Aquatic Microbial Ecology at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. His research focuses on ecology of microorganisms producing geosmin and other off-flavours in aquaculture systems and water reservoirs and on production and cycling of organic compounds by microorganisms in aquatic ecosystems. The research on off-flavours is conducted in collaboration with international partners at universities and the aquaculture industry in Brazil, Bangladesh and Australia
Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are common taste-and-odour compounds (TOCs) in many freshwater aquaculture systems especially when water recirculation is applied. The earthy and mildewed off-flavours may spoil fish stocks in both recirculated tank systems and in open fishponds. In this presentation, status on composition, occurrence and production of TOCs in trout breeding in recirculated systems is given. Also, procedures for reduction of TOCs in water and fish are presented. A major source of TOCs is Cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae) but recent studies indicate that various groups of non-photosynthetic microbes, especially filamentous bacteria belonging to the Streptomyces genus as well as other genera of bacteria, also contribute TOCs in recirculated aquaculture systems. Despite studies on biology and physiology of many potential TOC-producing organisms there is a limited knowledge on mechanisms that stimulate and control the production of TOCs in tanks and ponds. However, new molecular approaches appear to have a large potential for identification of dominant TOC-producing microorganisms. Further, a recently developed technique for quantification of TOCs (small stir bars with absorbing material) allows for detection of TOCs at small-scale resolution and help identification of TOC-producing hot-spots in aquaculture systems. These new developments are important tools in mitigating of TOC problems and may ensure that fish from aquaculture breeding remains attractive to consumers.
James Cook University, Australia
Time : 11:00
K Heimann established and is the director of the North Queensland Algal Identification/Culturing Facility at James Cook University, Townsville, Australia and initiated and built the AMCRC microalgal carbon capture and leads the methane bioremediation project at JCU. The biomass is used for commercial algal co-products. She received competitive research funding of more than $16 million. She has published extensively in high ranking journals including Nature. Her research has won many awards, the NQ Corporate Business Women Award 2011 being the latest
The world population is predicted to expand from 7 to ~9 billion people by 2050 which is likely to result in significant increased demands for food (70%), fuel (50%) and fresh water (30%). Feeding the growing world population will require increases in agricultural crop productivities as arable land resources are limited and continued urbanisation and industrialisation has led into declines in Australia’s farmland over the last four decades, following world trends. Increasing crop productivities is further challenged by predicted freshwater resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG)-induced climate instability, i.e. the increase and/or severity of ‘freak’ weather events, such as storms, prolonged droughts etc.. Maintaining and increasing Australian crop productivities will inevitably require, fertilisation, the production of which was estimated to contribute 1.2% of the total GHG emissions due to energy requirements. Algae are heralded as the potential saviours of the world’s ailmentsdue to photosynthetic cultivation on non-arable land using non-potable water (saline, brackish, industrial waste waters). Algal cultivation remediates CO2 GHG pollution (1.83 t CO2 per t biomass dry weight) and nutrient- or metal-rich waste waters. Amongst the various algal products that can be derived from the biomass, fertiliser production is an immediate and readily implementable product pathway offering potential for regional agricultural communities to become self-sufficient and independent of costly imports. This key-note will compare productivities of traditional and novel cultivation and processing pathways highlighting where biotechnological production processes can improve traditional aquaculture and generatenew market opportunities for expansion of aquaculture into hitherto non-traditional aquaculture markets.
- Track 1: Aquatic Ecosystem and Aqua Farming Methods
Track3: Comparative Biology of Aquatic Species
Track 4: Aquaculture and Biosystem Research
Track 9: Aquatic Immunology
Track 10: Aquatic Physiology
Track 14: Aquatic Toxicology
W Lindsey White
Auckland University of Technology
Head of the Department
Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture
Leibniz- Institute of Fresh water Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Lindsey White completed his PhD at the University of Auckland in 2001. He was awarded a three-year Post-Doctoral Fellowship from the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology and in 2004 took up a position as Senior Lecturer in the School of Applied Science at Auckland University of Technology (AUT). He is currently Head of the School of Interprofessional Health Studies at AUT. His research interests are in aquaculture and fisheries. The utilization of seaweeds, both by humans and by marine herbivores, has been a large focus of his work. In terms of human seaweed utilization, he is interested in seaweed farming; both understanding and limiting the environmental impacts of seaweed farming. To examine plant-herbivore interactions he has employed a nutritional ecology perspective, entailing a synthesis of information about both the algae (e.g. abundance, nutritional composition) and the herbivore (e.g. diet choice, digestive physiology). He is also interested the uses of other marine organisms and recently has been focusing on NZ surf clams. In this regard he has brought together an interdisciplinary team of scientists to carry out research to support the growth of the fisheries of these animals, including food science, bioactives research and biology and ecology.
In 1999 one of us (WLW) published a summary of world seaweed utilisation (Zemke-White and Ohno, 1999). At the time, reliable data on seaweed harvesting and farming was difficult to come by, and so the data was extracted from the book “Seaweeds of the World” edited by Alan Critchley and Masao Ohno. This resource was updated in 2006 and produced as a CD-ROM entitled World Seaweed Resources (Critchley et al. 2006). To provide an update on Zemke-White and Ohno (1999), we obtained the reported seaweed production weights from the FAO (2014) dataset. Worldwide, some 264 species of seaweeds are used by humans, mainly for food and hydrocolloid production (e.g .alginates, agar and carrageenan), but also for medicines, paper, fertiliser and animal feed. In 2012 close to 21 million tonnes wet weight of seaweeds were used, with just over 20 million tonnes of that cultured as opposed to wild harvest. Production is dominated by Indonesia, China and the Philippines. Indonesia produces 5.7 million t of Euchuema . China produces large amounts of: Laminaria (4.8 million t), Gracilaria (1.9 million t), Undaria (1.7 million t) and Porphyra (1.1 million t). In the Philippines, . Euchuema dominates with 1.7 million tonnes produced. These 5 seaweeds made up 96.7% of the total seaweed harvest in 2012.
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Werner Kloas has completed his PhD in 1990 and, after a postdoctoral stay in France, his habilitation in 1995 at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. He is since 1999 head of the department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and he is also since 2002 distinguished professor of Endocrinology at the Humboldt University, Berlin.
Aquaculture is globally the fastest growing sector of agriculture that needs to be sustainable and to meet also bioeconomical demands concerning productivity and environmental impacts. In principle, aquaponics, the combination of aquaculture and horticulture within a single aquaponic recirculation system provides a sustainable approach but the productivity of both, fish and vegetables, is lower compared to separate production sites. The aim of our new concept for aquaponic systems is to improve sustainability and productivity and to reduce environmental impacts in comparison with conventional aquaculture. ASTAF-PRO (aquaponic system for the (nearly) emission-free tomato and fish production in greenhouses) is a new combination of systemic parts and constitutes of two independent recirculating units, a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for rearing fish and a recirculating hydroponic unit producing vegetables. Both systems are connected by a one-way-valve to launch nutrient containing fish water into the hydroponic reservoir for optimization as fertilizer. Additionally the air-conditioning of the greenhouse is regaining evaporated water by condensation. The first experimental trial of the ASTAF-PRO prototype demonstrates successfully the proof of principle using a combination of tilapia and tomato production. The tilapia production revealed an optimum productivity and feed conversion ratio as in single RAS while the tomato production at least demonstrates the potential for similar efficiency as by conventional hydroponics. Thus ASTAF-PRO as a new concept reveals an improvement of sustainability, productivity, and resource efficiency with reduction of environmental impacts and might promote future application of aquaponics for food security.
University of Tasmania
Chris G Carter joined IMAS as Professor of Aquaculture Nutrition in 2009 after being Professor of Aquaculture at UTAS in Launceston since 2004. He was also the Aquaculture Program Leader for the Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute for 10 years. He is an international expert on feeding and nutrition physiology of aquatic ectotherms and his interests range from understanding growth to finding alternative proteins and oils for aquafeeds. He has supervised over 50 research and honours students and strongly believes research training is one of the most important roles of a University. He has been the Education Program Leader for two CRCs, served on the Graduate Board of Studies and is a recipient of the \"Dean of Graduate Studies Research Award for a Significant Contribution to Graduate Research Supervision and Education\". He is also acts as External Examiner for aquaculture courses at the University Putra Malaysia and University of Mauritius and is a member of the Editorial Board of Aquaculture Nutrition.
Tasmania is an island to the south of the Australian continent and is Australia’s smallest state by geography and population size. However, it is the country’s largest seafood producer by value which is mainly attributable to farmed Atlantic salmon (21% value of Australian seafood). Several salmonid species are found in Tasmania, none are endemic and all have been introduced sometime since European settlement. The State presents a unique location for aquaculture research on salmonid species due to a range of environmental, commercial and historical factors. The aim of the presentation is to present a brief historical perspective on the history of salmonids in Tasmania with a focus on research in physiology and nutrition. Tasmania is a climate change hot-spot so that changes to the marine environment often occur here before they do in other regions of the world. Historically, high water temperatures have been advantageous in promoting high growth of farmed Atlantic salmon. Generally salmon perform optimally over a wide temperature range and maintain high levels of growth performance outside the optimum temperature range. As higher temperatures are experienced more often the industry is developing responses to potential impacts of climate change. Strategies include selective breeding for robustness, developing management practices and formulating feeds for the conditions. Salmon are considered hypoxia sensitive, unexpectedly some Tasmanian salmon down regulate their metabolic rate in response to low dissolved oxygen. Sub-optimum high temperature and low dissolved oxygen increase protein and energy requirements. Feed formulation and feeding regimes can be managed accordingly. Alternative protein and oil ingredients are being investigated and provide interesting insights into the interactions between temperature, other environment factors and nutrition. There is also consideration of locally sourced ingredients. Multiple strategies based on a better understanding of physiology and nutrition is in place to support sustainable salmon farming Tasmania.
University of Rome Tor Vergata
Clara Boglione is at present Adjunct Professor in Applied Ecology at the Experimental Ecology and Aquaculture Laboratory of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Her research activity mainly deals with basic knowledge on fish larvae ontogenesis through the study of embryonic and larval development, morphological evaluation of finfish juveniles from aquaculture, the effects of environmental stress on fish larval ontogenesis, growth model and morphological variability in wild and reared finfish juveniles, normal and anomalous developmental processes in fish.
The first attempts of rearing the new finfish species for aquaculture is often based on a trial and error approach that too often is money and time consuming, for the high mortalities and the low quality of the produced fish, due to unsuitable conditions during larval differentiation and growth (i.e., unsuccessful initial feeding, cannibalism, deformities). However, knowledge on fish larvae behavior, trophic ecology and needs is almost impossible to be achieved into the wild, especially for marine pelagic fish, and the larval behavior showed in ‘forced’ environment, like the tanks, may be altered. The study of ontogenesis of sense organs (involved in perception and selection of food items) and skeleton (influencing swimming capabilities) is a precious tool to acquire information on the larval ecology, thus allowing the individuation of specific needs to be satisfied for the larva survival. Fins and vertebrae skeletogenesis marks the acquisition of peculiar, species-specific swimming behavior that must be considered in evaluating what are the best rearing tanks/conditions, whilst the ontogenesis of sense organs involved in trophic behavior may indirectly furnish some evaluable elements on trophic ecology. Ontogenetic data on Thunnus thynnus, Seriola dumerili and some Sparids are presented in order to furnish some indication for optimizing the larval rearing conditions.
Nelly WABETE is currently working in research Framework Department at Lagoons, Ecosystems and Sustainable Aquaculture in New Caledonia (LEAD NC), Ifremer. Mainly focused to study eco-physiological metabolism Respiratory and nutrition in penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris and application to shrimp farming in New Caledonia
Shrimp farming is an important economical sector in New Caledonia based on a non indigenous domesticated species, the Pacific Blue Shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. Animals with orange gills have been observed recently in grow-out ponds and up to 70% of the shrimp in one pond could be affected. This coloration impacts the quality product in the processing plant, leading to less-value shrimp for farmers. The phenomenon occurred when the average weight of shrimp is around 18g and after 80 days of rearing, concomitantly with a high feeding rate and an important phytoplanctonic biomass. Temporal fluctuations in gills coloration were also noticed. Individual observations allowed to conclude that gills coloration intensity varies according to the intermoult stages, from white in postmolt stage to a deep orange in premolt stage and disappeared after the molting (figure 1). Orange gills percentage was greatly reduced in shrimp population by isolating them from the soil with floating cages in earthen impacted ponds. Histological, biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have shown that heterogeneous iron layers were settled on the tissue surface and the iron concentration was tenfold higher in the orange gills than in white ones. Some bacterial colonisations have also been observed and are assumed to be involved in the iron precipitation processes which lead to these orange colorations. Very high concentrations in dissolved iron (till 70μM) were measured in the sediment pore water suggesting an environmental triggering of the phenomenon. All these results raise questions about the impact of orange gills on shrimp health, and in which conditions this phenomenon is promoted.
Ocean University of Sri Lanka
Shyamalie D Senadheera has completed her BSc (Hons) and Masters Degree in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka in 1996 and 2002. She has completed her PhD in Aquaculture Nutrition from Deakin University/Australia in 2012 being an Australian Leadership Awardee from AusAID. She is currently serving as a Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Ocean University of Sri Lanka. She has also served as the Academic Head of the Faculty. She has published 10 international journal papers in reputed journals and another 08 papers in peer reviewed local journals in addition to over 20 conference abstracts
An investigation was carried out to explore the current status of the ornamental aquatic plant industry with special reference to identifying the prevailing constraints for its booming and to make recommendations. During the study, numerous propagation techniques and ornamental aquatic plants were observed and identified both at private sector nurseries and the government operated aquatic plant breeding center located in North Western Province. Export data were obtained from export development board and Sri Lanka customs while the legislations pertaining to export trade were obtained from the departments of Wildlife and Forestry. The study revealed that Sri Lanka still experiences a shortage of stocks for export purposes despite having an increasing demand in the world trade. Further, international demand for aquatic plants has shown a steady increase during past several years. Despite, Europe being the strongest market for aquatic plants, currently a growth in demand has been experienced in the US market with the increasing number of species, varieties and quality. According to trade statistics, 53,830 kg of aquatic ornamental plants valued at 428663 US$ were exported to twenty countries during the period from January 2013 to August 2014. Being the major attractive species, Cryptocoryne, Anubias, Echinodorous, Aponogeton, Hygrophyla, Bacopa, Myriophyllum, Lagenandra play a vital role among exports. During the study, numerous constraints were found to exist. In addressing prevailing constraints, it is recommended to launch subsidiary schemes by the government for the private sector growers/exporters while providing them with required technical knowhow to boon this industry of economic importance.
Sébastien Hochard is PhD in Marine Environmental Science (University of Aix-Marseille, France) and specialized in the biogeochemical functioning of shallow coastal ecosystems. He achieved postdoctoral position at Ifremer and the University of New-Caledonia, and studied benthic pelagic coupling in shrimp pond monoculture and co culture with rabbit fish. He worked with ADECAL on the biogeochemical functioning of biofloc. He is now in charge of the HOBICAL project financed by the ZoNéco Program, which aim to insert the aquaculture of Holothuria. scabra in the New-Caledonian aquaculture based on shrimp production.
The dramatic decrease of natural stock of H. scabra led to a rising interest for its aquaculture in south-east pacific region, but rearing strategies still need to be improved. In New-Caledonia, former trial showed that direct co-culture with shrimp was not viable. Rotational culture in earthen pond with shrimp could be an interesting approach for the territory. In this context two goals are pursued, maximize the zootechnic performances of H. scabra (growth, survival and carrying capacity) and bioremediate the pond sediment for the next shrimp crop. For this purpose, we have conducted a two step experiment in mesocosms. First, we have grown holothuria using different nutrition protocols (no food, corn waste, fish flour) and followed environmental conditions and processes (sediment metabolism, benthic Chla, sediment organic matter composition and nutrient content) and zootechnic performances. In the second step, we have selected the treatments which led to the best bioremediation and to the best growth. These two treatments were reused for a crop of shrimp and compared to shrimp monoculture. The first step showed that feeding H. scabra with corn waste enhanced growth rate at the beginning of the experiment compared to the no food treatment. Nevertheless it did not permitted to outcome the carrying capacity of the system. Feeding led to an enrichment of the system and only the no food treatment led to an observable remediation of the sediment. The second step, the shrimp crop is still under process until June 2015, and results will be presented during the conference.
Muhammad Naeem Khan presently, working as Professor of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, He started his career in 1986 as Assistant Director Fisheries, Government of Punjab after his Masters from University of the Punjab, became Deputy Director Fisheries in 1989 and Director of Fisheries Department in 1996 after completion of my Ph.D., from the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. After serving Government of Punjab for 16 years, in 2003, He joined the University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore as it’s founding Dean & Professor, Faculty of Fisheries & Wildlife. In his capacity as Chairman, He established two new Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture and Department of Wildlife & Ecosystems at UVAS during 2003-2004. Soon after his appointment as Professor of Zoology at the University of the Punjab, He served as the founding Director of External Linkages for one year and finally as Registrar (Principal Administrative Officer) of the university from March 2005 to September 2010. A Post Doctorate from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, He is recipient of twenty-seven (27) Distinctions, Honors & Academic Achievements, including five (5) Gold Medals/Awards, author of forty three (43) internationally published and forty eight (48) nationally published research papers and have attended twenty eight (28) international conferences overseas. He had supervised the research of two (2) PhD and many graduate students. He had been Member of various prestigious university bodies and statutory organs like university Senate, Syndicate, Selection Board, Academic Council, Finance & Planning Committee, Advanced Studies & Research Board, Affiliation Committee, Boards of Faculties, Board of Studies etc. He had unique and diversified twenty eight (28) years of academic, administrative, governmental, research and university level higher education administration and management experience to my credit.
Most of the United Arab Emirates (UAE)’s coastline of about 1318 km lies along the Persian Gulf, with only a minor (6.82%) portion falling in the Gulf of Oman in the east. UAE / Dubai although surprised the world with its land mark marine projects like artificial islands of “Palm Jumeirah”, “Palm Jebel Ali”, “Deira Island” and “The World Islands” but far simpler marine and aquaculture projects like those in developed countries to raise fish in sea cages have yet to be developed here. Despite establishing a novel, unique, land-based chilled Recirculation Aquaculture System (RSA) of onshore pools for salmon aquaculture with a cost of USD 27 Million and a prized caviar sturgeon farm, UAE has yet to develop and exploit true potential of its aquaculture. The author recently surveyed a small portion of UAE west coast along the Persian Gulf and observed that the country is having many natural inlets and suitable sites for coastal &marine aquaculture. Considering the trade, business and investment boom witnessed by UAE during the last 2-3 decade and considering the ease, with which the new and modern technologies are imported, adopted and transferred to the country, the transfer of Australian marine aquaculture technologies can be very advantageous to the UAE fish production system. The prospects of culture of marine finfish in open pen-sea cage aquaculture in UAE are enormous as hydrographical and farming conditions are suitable /similar to other aquaculture rich regions of the world. It is recommended that a new state of art technical facility for fish seed production and aquaculture demonstration center for sea cages of a globally established and proven aquaculture fish species like barramundi (Asian sea bass) (Lates calcarifer) etc. be established in UAE. Australia being the global leader in barramundi aquaculture can transfer technology and provide aquaculture leadership to emerging markets in Middle East. It is anticipated that Australian cage aquaculture technologies can be promoted on a large commercial/industrial scale in Persian Gulf coast of UAE as these waters are known to have suitable natural productivity, water quality and rearing temperatures in the area. The booming tourism industry in UAE will get a further boost by this new type of marine food production and eco-tourism. Similarly aquaculture will help reduce pressure on traditional capture fishing operations and the coastal environment and its beauty will be least affected by these operations. The paper will discuss the prospects of transfer of globally established Australian barramundi aquaculture and sea food technologies to UAE and Middle East.